Metacognition

The Science of Learning: Metacognition in Education

Not only is it difficult to measure and develop metacognitive skills, but the current state of education systematically stifles metacognitive development. One of the hallmarks of metacognitive development is divergent thinking. Divergent thinking requires an individual to think of different ways that a solution can be reached. It requires cognitive flexibility, as well as critical … Continue reading

Metacognition

The Science of Learning: Metacognition in Life

As with most of the higher order thinking skills, metacognition plays a wider role in life than just academic work. However, metacognition has, by far, the widest reaching effects in people's lives as the following list demonstrates. This is likely the reason why educators have focussed and tried to develop metacognition in children. Unfortunately, because … Continue reading

Metacognition

The Science of Learning: Metacognition

Metacognition is a set of skills that allow us to control and direct our cognitive abilities. Metacognition? Cognition first. I was in my first cognition class as a 30-year-old adult before I had any idea what cognition is. I took the class because cognitive psychology was one of the areas I was required to study … Continue reading

Creativity and Conformity

The Science of Education: Creativity

The other side of the coin of conformity is creativity. Is there really a problem with creativity? What are the implications of total convergent thinking (conformity) and the loss of creativity in our society? Can we change this? Since we don’t have a creativity baseline, it is difficult to answer the first question. However, rational … Continue reading

Creativity and Conformity

The Science of Learning: Alternatives to Conformity

Is there an alternative to conformity in a system of mass education? This is a big question. Certainly not under the current mindset. Before something can be done about conformity, it needs to be recognized as a problem. First, we have to believe that there is a solution and that we can contribute to finding … Continue reading

Creativity and Conformity

The Science of Learning: The Immense Cost of Conformity

This article is the most difficult Science of Learning article that I will write. Considering the cost of conformity at an individual and societal level. The cost of conformity at a societal level is high, but the cost borne by an individual is even higher. I informally surveyed some clinical psychologists to gauge their opinions … Continue reading

Learning Styles

The Science of Learning: Learning Styles

A learning style is the type of learning that a learner enjoys. There are four recognized learning styles in education: Visual, Aural, Read/write, and Kinaesthetic. According to the theory, if a person receives instruction in their preferred learning style, they will learn faster and in greater depth. Teachers should try to provide instruction that will … Continue reading

Desirable Difficulties in Learning

The Science of Learning: Organization Effect

The organization effect is the desirable difficulty that asks about who does the organization of the material. Teaching today usually has the teacher doing the reading for the students, organizing the material into nice little bullet-points, reading the bullet-points to the students, and finally, handing the bullet-points out to the students in class or having … Continue reading

Desirable Difficulties in Learning

The Science of Learning: Disfluency Effect

Among the desirable difficulties that can be introduced into a classroom to enhance memorization, disfluency stands out as being particularly unintuitive. Disfluency is the process of making items to be learned more difficult to process which means that the student, in using more processing, processes the material to a deeper level. This is usually done … Continue reading

Desirable Difficulties in Learning

The Science of Learning: The Spacing Effect

The spacing Effect is a desirable difficulty for learning (along with the testing effect) that helps produce long lasting, durable memory traces, but has also been ignored in education. The spacing effect is when the learning of material takes place over long periods of time. Usually, when we teach something, we concentrate the presentation of … Continue reading