Desirable Difficulties in Learning

The Science of Learning: Testing Effect

The testing effect is all about memory. If you need to have information memorized, the testing effect is said to be your most powerful tool. The testing effect is a simple to administer intervention that strengthens memory traces – in fact, some researchers specify this as being the most important, ignored finding in memory and … Continue reading


The Science of Learning: Controlled Automatic Processes

Today I want to look at is the controlled and automatic processes of memory. Although we don’t often think of processes as part of memory, they are. When you are learning to drive a car, you are overwhelmed by the complexity of the skill. There is so much to think about that it is difficult … Continue reading


Science of Learning: Declarative Procedural Memory

Another aspect of memory that is important in formal learning would be the declarative (or conceptual) and procedural distinction. Declarative memory is made up of information that you can describe or talk about, whereas, procedural memory is made up of the information that allows you to do things (carry out procedures). Declarative tells you what, … Continue reading


The Science of Learning: Basics of Memory

I love memory. It is a part of cognitive psychology, and I found it one of the most fascinating aspects of cognition (I ended up studying attention, but I still love memory). Often, educational reformers will talk with some derision about the role of memory in education. All students (in today's world) are expected to … Continue reading

Memory, The Science of Learning

The Science of Learning: Episodic Memory

Actually cramming works to pass a test, and for millions of students that is the only goal for their education. Eighty-five percent of the students entering university in 2016 were doing so in order to get a qualification that would lead to a better job. For them, cramming works, because they have no intention to learn anything, … Continue reading